Has McLaren toned down their design language to appeal to more customers?
By now, you would have seen McLaren’s latest Grand Tourer, the GT. I think it’s a decent looking car, but doesn’t the design seem kind of “generic?” The design is obviously influenced by the gorgeous-but-dumbly-named Speedtail, but I’m not seeing any of the sweeping lines and curves from it.
Instead, there’s the squared off air intake from the Senna, and some design references from the gorgeous 720S, with the fastback rear canopy like the 570GT. The end result to me looks like a hodgepodge of different elements designed to appeal to multiple people. Personally, I dislike this “design-by-committee” approach.
The new GT isn’t as dramatic as the Speedtail or the 720S, and while I think the new styling works to its detriment, it’s pretty clear that this car isn’t designed to go after Porsche or Ferrari. Instead, McLaren is gunning for luxury GT brands like Bentley and Aston Martin. Logic would dictate that styling would have to be more conservative if you’re hoping to capture the luxury GT market.
Still, I’m willing to bet that the car would look much better if they used side panels and intakes from the 720S instead of the Senna.
Yes, there was more than one Mid-Engined Corvette…
Yesterday, I wrote about the latest mid-engined Corvette sighting and commented on how quiet the engine sounded. It’s surprising to learn that this wasn’t the first time General Motors came close to making a mid-engined Corvette. The person responsible for this concept was none other than the man who helped conceive the Corvette; Zora Arkus-Duntov. Inspired by the mid-engined race cars in Formula 1, Duntov believed that the future was mid-engined cars. In 1960, Duntov started the Corporate Experimental Research Vehicle program (CERV) and created several vehicles with blistering performance thanks to their powerful, mid-mounted small block engines. It’s these early efforts with the CERV program that eventually leads to my favorite mid-engined Corvette prototype.
For the 1970 New York Auto Show, Chevrolet debuted the XP-882; an all-wheel-drive mid-engined “corvette prototype” that featured a small block 350 cubic inch V8 mated to an Oldsmobile Toronado transaxle. Despite mid-engined cars being very popular at the show, Chevrolet president John Z. Delorean (yes, that Delorean) decided that the XP-882 would be too difficult and expensive to produce. The XP-882 would later return, however, as a completely new and radical approach to making the mid-engined Corvette.
In an effort to cut costs and explore new technology, Delorean authorized the creation of the XP-895. Based on the XP-882, the new car featured a sleek new body made of aluminum supplied by Reynolds. It was under its shiny new skin though that was completely radical: a 4-rotor Wankel Engine.
At the time, Chevrolet was experimenting with rotary engines, which promised better performance and fuel economy in a smaller package. Delorean had Duntov and his team take two 2-rotor engines and mate them together to make the 420hp 4-rotor engine. Along with the 2-rotor XP-897GT prototype, GM was getting closer to creating the quintessential mid-engined Corvette.
But, in 1973 the global oil crisis killed GM’s foray into rotary engines. Chevrolet did away with the 4-rotor engine and shoved a 350ci LT-1motor into the quicksilver chassis. This final iteration of Duntov’s mid-engined dream was called the Aerovette. Although the Aerovette was basically a remade XP-895, there was no doubt that this would have been the Mid-Engined Corvette. With Duntov’s vision of a mid-engined Corvette nearly complete, GM promised that the Aerovette would be in production by 1980.
Sadly, this was not to be. First, several key executives behind the Aerovette program, including Bill Mitchell and Ed Cole, retired. Then, the new company president David R. McLellan decided that the Aerovette program was not economically viable. His justification was mid-engined cars sold poorly compared to cars like the Datsun 240Z. The decision was unfortunately made to ax the gull-winged wonder. Chevrolet wouldn’t make more mid-engined concepts until the Corvette Indy and the CERV III.
What if GM didn’t kill the Aerovette?
Imagine for a moment that the Aerovette went into production just before the ’80s. What would the vehicle landscape look like then? Would I have grown up with a poster of the Aerovette next to my Lamborghini Countach and Diablo posters?
If General Motors actually put the Aerovette into production, then I think it actually would have been a failure. When GM was in talks for producing the Aerovette, it would have cost somewhere between $15,000 and $18,000 to buy. By comparison, the 1980 Corvette cost just under $15,000, so sales of the original car would have cannibalized the Aerovette’s.
There was also the issue with the new emissions restrictions placed on the Corvette. The early ’80s Corvettes were known for being woefully underpowered as their LT-1 engines were choked to meet emissions standards. A similar engine in the Aerovette would have effectively neutered the car. Additionally, the early Pontiac Fiero would have made almost as much power and less cost to the driver. The Aerovette then would have effectively killed any further developments for an American mid-engined sports car. Ultimately, this would mean that we wouldn’t be talking about the new C8 Corvette Supercar today.
In the end, despite how cool the earlier mid-engined Corvette prototypes were, timing is everything. If GM hadn’t canceled the CERV II, then we might have seen a production mid-engined Chevrolet by the late ’60s. We might have been able to see a mid-engined Corvette finishing Le Mans with the Ford GT40!
One thing is for sure: the new Mid-Engined Corvette is going to have to live up to the hype.
Japan was becoming a hotbed for industry in many sectors, including steel manufacturing, electronics, and of course, automotive manufacturing. Several manufacturers including Nissan, Toyota, Honda, and Mazda were engaged in an arms race to build fun and affordable sports cars for export markets. Starting in the late ’60s, drivers here in the USA saw the introduction of the Nissan 240Z, an affordable and reliable offering with the classic European styling cues that relay the hallmarks of a proper sports car.
Motorsport of course was no exception. Cars like the legendary Toyota 2000GT and Datsun 240Z were picked up by notable teams like Shelby Racing and Brock Racing Enterprises and raced with varying degrees of success. In Japan, several home-grown outfits also began racing their own cars. Dome is one of these outfits.
The Birth of a Dream
In 1975, Kabushiki Gaisha Dōmu, or “Dome” was founded by Minoru Hayashi with the purpose of building race cars. With its name meaning “A Child’s Dream,” it was the dream Hayashi to compete on the world’s stage of motorsports. However, these ambitions changed a short while after the company was founded. Disillusioned with the progress of their race car construction program, Dome pivoted towards producing their own sports cars. It was here that the Dome Zero was conceived.
For many people (including myself), the Dome Zero was an enigmatic sports car you could drive in Gran Turismo 4; a game I clearly spent too many hours playing and going as fast as possible down the Corkscrew at Laguna Seca. It featured styling that made the DeLorean in Back to the Future look like a cheap kit car with its razor-sharp lines and wrap-around canopy. Powering this dream car was the venerable Nissan L28 Inline-6 making 145hp and mated to a 5-Speed manual transaxle. What the engine lacked in power, the car more than made up for it with responsive handling and a futuristic, lightweight fiberglass body that would make Colin Chapman smile.
Dome followed an absolutely grueling schedule to bring the car to fruition in time for the 1978 Geneva Auto Show. However, when it debuted it became one of the show’s most popular cars, with showgoers immediately placing orders for the new Japanese wondercar that was shorter than the Ford GT40. In addition to this, the company’s coffers were kept flush with cash thanks to licensing agreements with toy companies to produce models of the razor-turned-sports car.
A year later, the Dome Zero P2 was created for the American auto show circuit, with revised bumpers and pop-up headlights. This road-going door-stop was tested by several notable American automotive magazines, including Road & Track, who’s contributor Dennis Simanaitis described the car’s handling “as-though-on-rails variety.” Road & Track, however, would slam the Zero P2’s styling as “derivative”.
Dome and their Zero seemed poised to reinvent the Japanese Sportscar and take the market by storm. So why is it that most of us have forgotten about this amazing car until 2004 when teenagers like me were whipping it around Trial Mountain in Gran Turismo 4?
The Two Strikes
Two things happened to the Dome Zero that put a kibosh on the production efforts. First, was the Japanese regulatory body for homologation rejecting the initial design of the Zero. The regulations at the time were very strict, and the original Zero prototype did not meet them due to various reasons. In order to try to get around these regulations, the Dome Zero P2 was designed for homologation in export markets in Europe and the United States. However, these new prototypes also failed to achieve homologation for those markets.
Following the failure of bringing the Dome Zero to production, Hayashi decided to pivot the company again and restructure development efforts from building a production sports car to a full-on race car. The reasoning behind this was simple: “Race on Sunday, Sell on Monday.” Hayashi had hoped that the publicity from a successful racing program would translate to renewed attention to homologate the Zero for production, and sell cars. Additionally, his team had ambitions to race at the 24 Hours of Le Mans, the highest arena of motorsport. In order to achieve such a lofty goal, Dome created the Zero RL for racing in the Group 6 prototype class.
The Zero RL was designed for straight-line speed on the Mulsanne Straight, with an unusually narrow front track, and the longest body in its class at slightly over 16 feet. The design of the car was also very striking and recognizable, thanks to its unique angular bodyshell that interestingly did not resemble the production prototype. Powered by the legendary Cosworth DFV V8 engine, the Zero RL cut a sharp profile with the sound to match.
It was unfortunate then, that the Zero RL was not a successful endeavor for Hayashi and Dome. Despite it being the third fastest car on the field, in its first outing in the 6 Hours of Silverstone the Zero RL managed to finish 12th in a field of 13. Then, at the 1979 24 Hours of Le Mans, both entered cars failed to finish the race due to technical problems. In the subsequent years, Dome returned time and again to try and clinch a finish at Le Mans, only to be met with Did-Not-Finish across the board. This proved to be the second and final strike for Dome’s efforts in creating a winning race car and successful production car, as in 1982 all racing efforts were canceled and both the Zero and Zero RL projects were scrapped. The company would refocus and go on to become a race car constructor for various teams, and the Zero would largely be forgotten as a footnote in Japanese automotive history.
A Virtual Legacy
The Dome Zero remained forgotten to mainstream audiences up until 2004 when the car was featured in the hit PlayStation 2 game Gran Turismo 4. In fact, I can recall doing the necessary racing modifications and tuning the Nissan L28 engine to nearly 350 hp in-game, and then going racing against a field of Lotuses and a few Honda NSX’s! Of course, I won those races thanks to the car’s low simulated weight and a fully race-tuned Inline-6.
I know I’m not alone with my obsession with the Dome Zero. Thanks to a series of very popular video games, the Dome Zero is now a well-known and mythical sports-car-that-could’ve-been. It’s 70’s razor-edge wedge styling looks right at home on the walls of an 80’s kid’s bedroom, next to that poster of the Lamborghini Countach with a buxom blonde draped over it. Its design and the story behind the car just lends itself to the imagination, and begs the question “Why didn’t this get made?”. It’s unfortunate the Dome Zero is regulated to “what could have been”, but thankfully, people like Gran Turismo creator and Polyphony Digital CEO Kazunori Yamauchi and his deep passion for cars allow people like me to experience what it might have been like driving the Dome Zero on my favorite race tracks.